Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that affects primarily the central areas of the face (cheeks, nose, chin, and central forehead) which undergoes periods of exacerbations and remissions of cutaneous signs. Rosacea appears to be quite common, affecting over 415 million sufferers worldwide.
The causes of this condition are not completely understood, but findings suggest it could be due to abnormal functioning of the immune system (induces inflammatory cascades) or neurovascular dysregulations (leads to vasodilation and development of abnormal superficial blood vessels). It is most often observed in patients with fair skin, is three times more common in women, and may occur at any age but is typically occurring between the ages of 30-50.
The primary features of rosacea include flushing (transient erythema), persistent redness (non-transient erythema), papules and pustules, and sometimes telangiectasia (visible dilated blood vessels). The secondary features are burning and stinging, plaques (larger red areas), dry appearance, oedema, ocular manifestations like tearing and redness, peripheral location (present in neck, chest, scalp, ears and back), and phymatous changes.
There are four subtypes of rosacea: